Renal Physiology

Rapid, dynamic changes in glomerular permeability to macromolecules during systemic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion in rats

Josefin Axelsson, Anna Rippe, Carl M. Öberg, Bengt Rippe


The actions of systemic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusions on glomerular permeability were investigated in vivo. In anesthetized Wistar rats (250–280 g), the left ureter was cannulated for urine collection, while simultaneously blood access was achieved. Rats were continuously infused intravenously with either of four doses of ANG II ranging from 16 ng·kg−1·min−1 (Lo-ANG II) to 1.82 μg·kg−1·min−1 (Hi-ANG II), and in separate experiments with aldosterone (Aldo; 0.22 mg·kg−1·min−1), or with the calcium channel blocker nimodipine, or with the Aldo antagonist spironolactone together with a high ANG II dose (910 ng·kg−1·min−1; Hi-Int-ANG II), respectively, and with polydisperse FITC-Ficoll-70/400 (molecular radius 10–80 Å) and 51Cr-EDTA. Plasma and urine samples were taken at 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min and analyzed by high performance size-exclusion chromatography for determination of glomerular sieving coefficients (θ) to Ficoll. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were also assessed. For ANG II, there was a rapid, marked, partly reversible increase in glomerular permeability (θ) for Ficoll molecules >34 Å in radius, peaking at 5–15 min, which was completely abrogated by the ANG II blocker candesartan but not affected by spironolactone at 15 and 30 min. For Aldo, the response was similar to that found for the lowest dose of ANG II infused. For the two highest ANG II doses given (Hi-Int-ANG II and Hi-ANG II), GFR decreased transiently, concomitant with marked, sustained increases in MAP. Nimodipine completely blocked all hemodynamic ANG II actions, whereas the glomerular permeability response remained unchanged. Thus ANG II directly increased glomerular permeability independently of its hemodynamic actions and largely independently of the concomitant Aldo response. The ANG II-induced increases in glomerular permeability were, according to a two-pore and a log-normal distributed pore model, compatible with an increased number of “large pores” in the glomerular filter, and, to some extent, an increase in the dispersity of the small-pore radius.

  • glomerular filtration
  • Ficoll
  • microalbuminuria
  • sieving coefficients
  • log-normal distributed pore model
  • aldosterone
  • podocytes
  • nimodipine
  • candesartan
  • spironolactone


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