There is little clinical data of how hypertension may influence individuals with nephron deficiency in the context of being born with a single kidney. We recently developed a new rat model (the heterogeneous stock-derived model of unilateral renal agenesis rat) that is born with a single kidney and exhibits progressive kidney injury and decline in kidney function with age. We hypothesized that DOCA-salt would induce a greater increase in blood pressure and therefore accelerate the progression of kidney injury in rats born with a solitary kidney compared with rats that have undergone unilateral nephrectomy. Time course evaluation of blood pressure, kidney injury, and renal hemodynamics was performed in the following six groups of animals from weeks 13 to 18: 1) DOCA-treated rats with a solitary kidney (DOCA+S group), 2) placebo-treated rats with a solitary kidney, 3) DOCA-treated control rats with two kidneys (DOCA+C group), 4) placebo-treated control rats with two kidneys, 5) DOCA-treated rats with two kidneys that underwent uninephrectomy (DOCA+UNX8 group), and 6) placebo-treated rats with two kidneys that underwent uninephrectomy. DOCA+S rats demonstrated a significant rise (P < 0.05) in blood pressure (192 ± 4 mmHg), proteinuria (205 ± 31 mg/24 h), and a decline in glomerular filtration rate (600 ± 42 μl·min−1·g kidney weight−1) relative to the DOCA+UNX8 (173 ± 3 mmHg, 76 ± 26 mg/24 h, and 963 ± 36 μl·min−1·g kidney weight−1) and DOCA+C (154 ± 2 mmHg, 7 ± 1 mg/24 h, and 1,484 ± 121 μl·min−1·g kidney weight−1) groups. Placebo-treated groups showed no significant change among the three groups. An assessment of renal injury markers via real-time PCR/Western blot analysis and histological analysis was concordant with the measured physiological parameters. In summary, congenital solitary kidney rats are highly susceptible to the induction of hypertension compared with uninephrectomized rats, suggesting that low nephron endowment is an important driver of elevated blood pressure, hastening nephron injury through the transmission of elevated systemic blood pressure and thereby accelerating decline in kidney function.
- high blood pressure
- unilateral renal agenesis
- chronic kidney disease
- deoxycorticosterone acetate
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