Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a prevalent chronic disease. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia in the context of absolute lack of insulin; whereas type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is due to insulin resistance-related relative insulin deficiency. Obesity is an established risk factor for T2DM. In comparison with T1DM, T2DM is more complex. The natural history of T2DM in most patients typically involves a course of obesity to impaired glucose tolerance, to insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Diabetes causes some serious microvascular and macrovascular complications, such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, angiopathy and stroke. Diabetes also causes uropathy, which is among the most common complications of DM. In addition, obesity itself affects lower urinary tract. Urological complications of obesity and diabetes (UCOD) affect quality of life substantially. The symptoms and pathophysiology of urological complications in T1DM and T2DM are not same. The aim of this perspective is to review the available data combined with the experience of our research teams who has spent a good part of last decade on studies of association between DM and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with the aim of bringing more focus to the future scientific exploration of UCOD. We focus on the most common seen urological complications, urinary incontinence (UI), bladder dysfunction, and LUTS, in obesity and diabetes. Knowledge of these associations will lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying UCOD and hopefully assist urologists in the clinical management of obese or diabetic patients with LUTS.
- Copyright © 2016, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology