ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: In experimental models of diabetes, augmented sodium-glucose cotransport-2 (SGLT2) activity diminishes sodium (Na+) delivery at the macula densa. As a result, less vasoconstrictive adenosine is generated, leading to afferent arteriolar vasodilatation and hyperfiltration. The measurement and significance of urinary adenosine in humans has not been extensively examined in states of renal hemodynamic impairment, like that of diabetes. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to validate a method for urine adenosine quantification in humans and perform an exploratory post-hoc analysis to determine whether urinary adenosine levels change dynamically in response to natriuresis in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and after treatment with the SGLT2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) empagliflozin. We hypothesized that SGLT2i, which reduces renal hyperfiltration through increased Na+ delivery to the macula densa, would increase urinary adenosine excretion. METHODS: Urine adenosine corrected for creatinine was measured using our validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method in 40 healthy participants and 40 patients with T1D. In the T1D cohort, measurements were performed during clamped euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions, prior to and following 8 weeks of SGLT2i therapy. RESULTS: Urinary adenosine was detectable in healthy subjects (0.32± 0.11µmol/mmol Cr) and patients with T1D. In response to SGLT2i, urine adenosine increased during clamped hyperglycemia (0.40±0.11 vs 0.45±0.12 µmol/mmol Cr, p=0.005). Similar trends were observed during clamped euglycemia (p=0.08). CONCLUSIONS: SGLT2i increases urinary adenosine excretion under clamped hyperglycemic conditions in patients with T1D. The potentially protective role of SGLT2i against glomerular hyperfiltration and its mediation by adenosine in diabetes merits further study.
- Urinary Adenosine
- diabetic chronic kidney disease
- Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology