Table 2.

Major changes in the key enzyme and receptors in chronic renal failure and their impact on plasma lipid/lipoprotein levels

ProteinChangeEffect on Plasma Lipids/LPs
apoA-I↓ HDL
LCAT↓ HDL-Chol, ↓ HDL-2/HDL-3
CETP↓ HDL-Chol, ↑ HDL-TG
ACAT↑ VLDL-Chol, ↓ HDL-Chol
LPL↑ TG, (↓ delipidation of VLDL and CM)
VLDL receptor↑ VLDL, ↑ TG
Hepatic lipase↑ IDL, ↑ CM remnants, ↑ HDL-TG, ↑ TG, ↑ LDL-TG
LRP↑ IDL, ↑ CM remnants
apoCII/CIII (ratio)↑ TG (↓ LPL activity)
Pre-β-HDL↑ TG (↓ LPL activity)
Hepatic DGAT↓ VLDL-TG
  • LP, lipoprotein; LCAT, lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase; CETP, cholesterol ester transfer protein; ACAT, acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase; DGAT, acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyltransferase; TG, triglyceride; Chol, cholesterol; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; LRP, LDL receptor-related protein; CM, chylomicron.